Úvod

Tento blog je určen všem, kdo chtějí získat přehled o jednotlivých konverzačních, popřípadě i maturitních tématech z angličtiny nebo francouzštiny. Neopomeneme samozřejmě ani gramatiku. Našimi zdroji jsou kromě internetu i různé knihy anglické a francouzské konverzace. Přejeme příjemné počtení a vzdělávání!
Zkratky v nadpisu článků:
KAJ - konverzace v anglickém jazyce
KFJ - konvezace francouzská
GF - francouzská gramatika
GA - anglická gramatika

sobota 16. července 2011

KAJ - Australia and New Zealand

Australia and New Zealand
Australia is located in south-east Asia. The Indian Ocean is west and south, the Pacific (Coral and Tasman Seas) is east. Nearest is Indonesia, Papua New Guinea on north, Solomons, Fiji and New Zealand are on east. Its area is 7.7 mil sq. km. Australia is an island continent. The Great Dividing Range along the Eastern coast (The Australian Alps) has the highest Australian mountain Mt. Kosciusko.
Climate – various kinds
Arid and hot are the north-western part of Western Australia and northern Territories and also Great Sandy and Great Victoria Deserts. The North-East has heavy rainfalls and Cape York Penninsula has jungles. Rivers (the Murray River, the Darling), Lakes (Lake Eyre, Lake Torrens and Lake Gairdner). The Australian climate varies from warm to subtropical. The Continent is in the southern hemisphere which means that Australia has summer when we have winter and vice versa. The Animals of Australia are numerous and some of them, like the kangaroo, koala, bear, dingo, platypus, Tasmanian devil, wombat cannot be found elsewhere.
People:
The population of Australia is some 17 million. The density is one of the lowest in the world. People live in urban areas mainly along the south-east coast. Deserts and the tropical northern part are practically uninhabited. Inhabitants are mainly of British origin, the rest is made by other European ethnic groups and by aborigines. Australian English and aboriginal languages are spoken here.
History:
Captain James Cook explored the eastern coast in 1770 when the continent was inhabited by a variety of different tribes. Within decades Britain got the entire continent which became a convict colony from 1788 till 1850s when immigration increased because gold was found here. Aborigines and part-aborigines are mostly detribalized but there are several preserves in the Northwest Territory.
National economy:
Main industries are iron, steel, textiles, electrical equipment, chemicals, car, aircraft, ship and machinery. Australia belongs to the top exporters of beef, lamb, wool, oats, hay, sugar, wine, fruit and vegetables. Natural riches contain mainly bauxite, coal, copper, iron, lead, nickel, silver, tin, uranium and zinc ores. Currency used in Australia is Australian Dollar.
Government type and administration
The official title is The Commonwealth of Australia and it is a British dominion. It has a democratic, federal system and the head of state is Queen Elizabeth II represented by the Governor-General. The head of government is the Prime Minister.
The Commonwealth of Australia consists of 6 states and 2 territories: New South Wales (capital Sydney), Victoria (Melbourne), Queensland (Brisbane), South Australia (Adelaide), Western Australia (Perth), Tasmania (Hobart). The capital of whole country is Canberra.
The Australian national flag consists of the British Flag symbol and a larger blue field in which 5 stars are arranged in the form of the Southern Cross constellation.
New Zealand
New Zealand consists of two large islands (north and South Island) in south-west Pacific Ocean. Nearest are Australia on west, Fiji, Tonga on north. Its area is 270 tausent sq. km. Each of the two main islands is mainly hilly and mountainous. The east coast consists of fertile plains (Canterbury Plains). A volcanic plateau is in the centre of North Island.
People:
The population is more than 3 million people. Density is much higher than in Australia. The most of people live in urban areas. People are of European (above all British) origin, the rest are Polynesian. Officially English is spoken here but some people still speak Maori.
History:
The Maoris, a Polynesian group reached New Zealand before and during the 14th century. The first Europeans were Abel Tasman and James Cook. Now it is an independent member of the Commonwealth.
National economy:
Food processing, textiles, machinery and forest industry are the main industries here. Only 2 per cent of land is arable and the main crops is grain. Natural riches are: oil, gas, iron ore and coal. The main trading partners of new Zealand are the USA, Australia, Japan, Great Britain.
Government type and administration
NZ has a parliamentary system where the head of state is Queen Elizabeth II represented by the Governor General. The head of government is the Prime Minister. The country is divided into counties. The capital is Wellington, other big cities are Manukau, Christchurch and Auckland.
The flag consists of the British Union Jack in the left upper corner and 4 red stars in the Southern Cross constellation.

KAJ - Canada

• Canada (from Inuit word kanata (=village, settlement))
• Area: 10 mil. km² (2nd largest country), Population: 33 mil.
• Flag with maple leaf
• Capital: Ottawa, Largest city: Toronto
• Official languages: English (spoken in West), French (spoken in East)
• Currency – Canadian Dollar
• Monarch – Br. Queen, Parliament – House of Commons, Senate
• 2 major parties – Liberal party, Progressive conservative party
• Resources: copper, zinc, lead, oil, iron ore
• 10 provinces – Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Manitoba, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island, Saskatchewan, Alberta, Newfoundland and Labrador
• 3 territories – Northwest Territories, Yukon, Nunavut
History
• First Europeans – Vikings 1000 AD
• 16. century – exploration started – John Cabot
• 1689-1763 – International Wars (Inuits × Europeans), Quebec Act (religion,language)
• 1964 – self-governing, independent
Cities
• most population around Canada-US border
• Otawa – government
• Toronto
o largest city, capital of Ontario
o multicultural city, many rivers and creeks
• Victoria
o capital of Br. Columbia
o most British city, named after Queen Victoria
• Vancouver – largest city in Br. Columbia (3. largest in Canada)
• Quebec – largest French speaking city

Nature
• Rocky mountains (=Rockies) – 5000 kilometres long
• National parks – Banff, Jesper
• Mt. Logan – 6000 m
• Animals – humpback whale, chipmunk(hlodavec), sea-lion(lvoun), bear, salmon; Plants – sequoia
• Rivers
o St. Lawrence – 5 great lakes-Superior,Michigan,Huron,Erie (Niagara) Ontario
o Mackenzie – longest river
o Yukon, Columbia, Frazer
Language
• Differs only in vocabulary
o lift -> elevator
o biscuit -> cookie
• Literature – English, French written

KAJ - The USA

The USA covers an area about 9 million sq km.
It is composed of 50 states. The states are joined together in a federal republic, plus the District of Columbia with the capital of the USA – Washington D.C.
The USA borders on Mexico in the south, the Atlantic Ocean in the east, Canada in the north and the Pacific Ocean in the west. Part of the USA is Alaska and the Hawaiian Islands.
The second longest American river is the Mississippi. Its name is of Indian origin and means „great water“. The longest river is the Missouri.
On the Canadian border the five Great Lakes are situated: Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Lake Huron, Lake Michigan and Lake Superior. Niagara Falls are situated in this area.
In the west, the Rocky Mountains can be found.
The highest mountain is Mount Mc Kinley (6194 m) in Alaska.
The climate is varied – from the arctic climate in the north to the subtropical climate in the south. Death Valley in California is the hottest place on earth in summer. California, Arizona, New Mexico and Florida belong among the so-called Sun Belt States.
American National Parks are visited by millions of people. Some of them are Yellowstone, and Grand Canyon of the Colorado River.

The total U.S. population is more than 280 million.
The majority of the population originally came from Europe. The blacks in America were originally brought from Africa as slaves. There are also many Asians, and Chinese and Japanese people in America.
The biggest cities are New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Houston, Philadelphia, Detroit, Boston, San Francisco, New Orleans.
Cities in the north:
Chicago: the third largest city in the USA
- situated on the bank of Lake Michigan
- industrial city
- the busiest airport in the world (called "O'Hare")

Detroit - notorious for its car industry

In the south:
New Orleans - famous for jazz music

In the east:
New York - a cosmopolitan city, there are lots of nations
- called "Big Apple" or "City which never sleeps"
- lots of skyscrapers
- 5 parts: Brooklyn, Bronx, Queens, Manhattan, Staten Island (with the Statue of Liberty)
Philadelphia - originally it was the capital of the USA
Washington D.C. - the capital of the USA; the seat of the President in the White House; the seat of Congress in Capitol Building
In the west:
San Francisco - with its hilly streets; there are trams
- the dominant of the city is Golden Gate Bridge - in reality it is orange (or light red); nearby is an island where the prison Alcatraz is situated

Los Angeles - "City of Angels"
- second largest American city
- its district called "Beverly Hills" is a very expensive place to live for famous actors and wealthy people

The American system of government is based on the Constitution of 1789. Power is divided between the Federal Government (which has control over national matters, such as defense, foreign affairs and finance) and the state governments (which are responsible for law and order and education, among other things). Each state has its own state government, laws, courts, police etc. There is also a federal police force, the FBI (federal Bureau of Investigation).

The Federal Government consists of three departments:
1) the Executive Department (the president),
2) the Congress
3) the Supreme Court

The President is head of the Executive Department. His official residence is The White House, Washington. He is elected for four years and cannot be elected more than twice. He must be at least 35 years old. He is head of the armed forces and conducts foreign policy. He appoints members of the government and can sack them. He can veto (forbid) legislation. All laws must be signed by the President.

The Congress has 2 houses – the Senate and the House of Representatives. They vote for or against new legislation. Each state has 2 senators, and at least one representative in the House of Representatives.

The Supreme Court ensures that all new laws are in accordance with the constitution. It can declare new legislation unconstitutional and therefore forbid it.

HOLIDAYS: Thanksgiving, Independence Day, Columbus Day, Martin Luther King´s Day

America was discovered by Christopher Columbus who was searching for a new way to India; he landed in America in 1492; actually he believed he was in India, that is why he called the original American inhabitants "Indians"

KAJ - Great Britain

The British Isles form a group of islands lying on the Northwest coast of Europe. The largest islands are Great Britain consisting of 3 parts: England, Wales and Scotland and Ireland consisting of Northern Ireland and the Irish republic. There are also the Orkneys, the Shetlands and the Hebrides. The Isle of Man lies in the Irish Sea and the English Channel Islands.
The area of Great Britain can be divided into two main regions - Lowland Britain to the southeast and Highland Britain to the northwest of the line running from Newcastle to Exeter.
The highest mountain is Ben Nevis (1342 m) in the Scottish Highlands.
The largest rivers are the Thames, the Tyne and the Trent in England and the Clyde and the Tweed in Scotland.
There are beautiful lakes in the the Lake District and in the Highlands of Scotland (called „lochs“ - Loch Ness).
The climate is temperate, winters are never very cold and summers are mild.
Natural recources:
Britain is very rich in high qaulity coal. The main coal-bearing areas are the Scottich field in cetral Lowlands, near Newcatstle, near Leeds, the South Wales.
There are petroleum and gas fields in the North Sea, too.
Other recources: sand, sandstone, chalk, salt.
The main industries developed during the Industrial revolution: cool, textile, wool, iron and steel, shipbuilding and engeneering. New industries developed in the 20th century: chemical and aircraft industries, electrical industries.
The main areas of industrial concentration are Yorkshire, Manchester, London, south Wales
Agricultural production constists manly of livestock production, included dairy farms, sheep farms, and poultry farms. There is a production of cereals, potatoes, sugar beet, fruit and vegetables. Only 2% of population are employed in agriculture.
Key facts:
Capital city: London
Major cities - holiday centres: Belfast, Brighton, Canterbury, Cambridge, Dover, Edinburgh, Hastings, London, Oxford, Plymouth, Stonehenge, Stratford upon Avon
Longest river: Severn
Currency: Pound Sterling divided into 100 pences
Main languages: English (with special local accents and dialects), Welsh, Scotish Gaelic and Irish Gaelic
Anthem: God save the queen
Sports: cricket, football, rugby, golf

KFJ - Les achats

Les achats
Faire ses courses dans un magasin nakupovat v obchodě
...dans un grand magasin ...v obchodním domě
...dans une boutique ....v butiku
...dans un supermarché ....v samoobsluze
....au marché ...na trhu

le rayon de la parfumerie oddělení parfumerie
acheter quelquechose a credit koupit něco na úvěr
vendre qc en soldes prodávat ve výprodeji
le vendeur, la vendeuse prodavač, prodavačka
passer à la caisse jít k pokladně
faire la queue stát frontu
avoir de la monnaie mít drobné
(Donnez-moi) un kilo d’oranges, s’il vous plait.Dejte mi) kilo pomerančů, prosím.
Cela coűte trop cher. ( C’est trop cher.) To je příliš drahé.
Ce n‘est pas cher. C’est bon marché. Je to levné.
Je regarde seulement. Jen se dívám.
Je voudrais acheter ... Chtěla bych koupit ..
Je vous dois combien? Co jsem vám dlužná?
Je cherche ... Sháním ...
abordable levný
cher, chère drahý
J´ai faim de loup et soif à avalet la langue. Mám hlad jako vlk a žízeň jako trám.
Je peux payer avec une carte de crédit(en liquide? Mohu platit kreditní kartou (v hotovosti)?
Pourriez-vous... ? Mohl byste...?
Quest-ce que tu achetes? Co kupuješ?
deux euros le kilo dvě eura za kilo
offre valable/offre spéciale du mercredi au dimanche platná nabídka/speciální nabídka od středy do neděle
haute qualité vysoká kvalita
lot de 2 pieces sada dvou kusů
gratuit zdarma
la réduction sleva
en promotion v akci
a moitié prix, 50% remboursé za poloviční cenu
jusqi’a -20% sur .... sleva až 20% na...
vendeur/caissier/client prodavač/pokladní/zákazník

la boite, le sachet, la piece, le pot, la paquet, la bouteille, le flacon, le bidon, la barquette (kontejner)
.
Au bar-tabac
A: Vous avez combien de cartes postales?
B: Cinq. Donnez-moi aussi cinq timbres à 3 francs.
A: Désolée, je n.ai plus de timbres.
B: Ah... Vous vendez des télécartes?
A: Oui. A combien d.unités: cinquante ou cent vingt?
B: Cinquante... Et un paquet de Gauloises Blondes, s.il vous plaît.
A: Voilà.
B: Euh, excusez-moi... Il y a une pharmacie près d.ici?
A: Oui, là-bas, au coin de la rue.

Au marché - interview
A: Bonjour Madame! Qu.est-ce que vous désirez aujourd.hui?
B: Bonjour! Je voudrais un kilo de tomates fraiches, s.il vous plaît.
A: Et avec ça?
B: Une livre de courgettes... et deux poivrons.
A: C.est tout?
B: Non, donnez-moi aussi du raisin.
A: Du blanc? Il n.est pas cher! C.est 20 francs le kilo.
B: Bon, alors, un kilo, s.il vous plaît... C.est tout.

Offre d’un supermarché

Profitez de la semaine.
Une bouteille de jus d.orange Pampryl, 1euro 93.
Deux tubes de dentifrice Tonigencyl 2 euros 45.
Une boîte de trois sachets de puré Mousline 2 euros 37.
Un paquet de céréales Plopsies 3 euros 41.
Un lot de plaquette de beurre Président 2 euros 59.
Trois tablettes de chocolat 2 euros 89.

Les magasins:
- le magasin de vêtements
- le magasin de chaussures
- le magasin d'articles de sport
- le magasin de disques
- la parfumerie
- la librairie
- la papeterie
- la pharmacie
- le coiffeur
- le kiosque à journaux
- l'opticien
- le bureau de tabac
- le supermarché
- le hypermarché
- le grand magasin
- le centre commercial
- le marché
- la boucherie
- la boulangerie
- la pâtisserie
- l'épicerie
- la charcuterie
- la poissonnerie
- le marchand de fruits et légumes
- la crémerie
- le fleuriste
- la droguerie
- la quincaillerie (železářství)
- la mercerie (galanterie)
- la bijouterie
- la boutique


Questions:
Est-ce que vous aimer faire des achats?
Combien par mois faitez-vous vos courses?
Esc-ce que vous aimez acheter des vetements?
Quand est-ce que vous faites vos achats? Vous préférez les faire pendant le week-end?
Quel est votre magasin préféré? Pourquoi?
Ou est-ce que vous achetez des légumes? Au marché?
Que pensez-vous du métier d’une vendeuse? Est – il difficile?